Bifulco, Giovanna (2016) Influenza del metabolismo sulle caratteristiche produttive e riproduttive della bufala Mediterranea Italiana. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: Italiano
Title: Influenza del metabolismo sulle caratteristiche produttive e riproduttive della bufala Mediterranea Italiana
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Bifulco, Giovannagiovannabifulco88@hotmail.it
Date: 30 March 2016
Number of Pages: 119
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Medicina Veterinaria e Produzioni Animali
Scuola di dottorato: Scienze veterinarie per la produzione e la sanità
Dottorato: Produzione e sanità degli alimenti di origine animale
Ciclo di dottorato: 28
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
Cortesi, Maria Luisamarialuisa.cortesi@unina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
Campanile, GiuseppeUNSPECIFIED
Date: 30 March 2016
Number of Pages: 119
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bufalo, Metabolismo, Riproduzione,
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/19 - Zootecnica speciale
Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2016 09:15
Last Modified: 31 Oct 2016 11:41
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/10841

Abstract

Italy can be considered a leading country for both genetic improvement and breeding techniques in buffalo species. However, few information are actually available on physiology of this species and particularly those for high producing dairy buffaloes maintained in intensive and semi-intensive breeding. Therefore, it is essential to carry out new studies aimed to increase metabolism knowledge in this species. The purposes of this doctoral thesis were to evaluate: 1) the results of the application of the out of season breeding mating technique and the metabolic status of buffaloes undergone milk recording; 2) the metabolic changes that occur throughout the lactation and in different climate conditions; 3) the possibility of using some parameters assessed in the milk as risk indexes for metabolic diseases; 4) the influence of milk production and some metabolites on pregnancy. Two trials were carried out in the experimental design. The main aim of Experiment 1 was to verify milk production and Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) levels in primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes undergone milk recording. Experiment 2 was carried out simultaneously in 8 commercial buffalo farms located in the area of buffalo mozzarella cheese DOP production. The feedstuffs utilized for animal feeding were collected in each farm and analyzed for chemical composition. Milk yield was recorded monthly and two milk samples (during morning and afternoon milking) were collected to evaluate: fat, protein, lactose, urea, true protein, casein, CF, H-index, cryoscopic index, acetone, BHBA and fat characteristics (satured and unsatured fats). Furthermore, 40 buffaloes with different days in milk (5-50 days; 50-120 days; 120-200 daysand 200-270 days) were selected in each farms to analyze metabolic profile and its relationship with metabolites in milk. Therefore, these buffaloes underwent blood sampling two months apart when milk recordings were carried out to analyze the metabolic profile (see below). Throughout the experimental, period 3 milk tank sampling were performed in 6 farms to perform chemical analysis and cheese yield. Finally, the influence of metabolic status on reproductive performance was assessed in each farm, mainly looking at oocyte and embryo development. Therefore, a representative number of buffaloes in each farm underwent synchronization of ovulation and artificial insemination. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the out of season breeding mating technique is correctly applied in primiparous buffaloes, while a higher seasonal pattern can be observed in pluriparous counterparts. Furthermore, BHBA levels were higher at both the beginning and the end of lactation, compared to the mid lactation period. The analysis of urea levels in milk support the evidence that protein requirements were not satisfied or exceeded the requirements in about 50% of cases. In Experiment 2, it was observed that the number of days in milk and the season influence energy metabolism through a lower energy intake, higher metabolic strain (for both the end of lactation and cold periods) and higher milk yield. These buffaloes underwent an excess of fat mobilization, that was the main reason for milk qualitative characteristics worsening and lower yield in mozzarella cheese. Furthermore, the lower dry matter intake and the lipomobilization, recorded at the beginning of lactation caused a change in fat characteristics, as demonstrated by the evidence that buffaloes at lower than 50 days in milk showed a significantly (P<0.01) increase of saturated fatty acids concentration (10.52 ± 0.09 vs. 4.78 ± 0.10, 5.41 ± 0.10 and 5.55 ± 0.10, in 5-50 days; 50-120 days; 120-200 daysand 200-270 days, respectively) together with a decrease of monounsaturated counterparts (1.76± 0.04 vs. 1.88 ± 0.04, 2.40 ± 0.04, and 2.74 ± 0.04 in 5-50 days; 50-120 days; 120-200 daysand 200-270 days, respectively). This was also accompanied by low reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, milk and blood parameters were compared during cold and hot season: the low temperatures and the high thermal excursion recorded during the transitional period (middle of December – end of February) caused lower milk yield (10.96±0.20 vs. 10.16±0.32; P<0.05, in warm and cold period, respectively), lactose (4.94±0.01 vs. 4.88±0.01; P<0.01) and fat / protein ratio (1.85±0.02 vs. 1.75±0.02; P<0.01). The worse climatic conditions recorded were responsible for higher energy requirements, which caused higher fat mobilization demonstrated by milk acetone levels (0.28±0.01 vs. 0.50±0.01; P<0.01), blood NEFA (0.13±0.01 vs. 0.24±0.01; P<0.01) and BHBA levels (0.44±0.01 vs. 0.47±0.01; P<0.05). The statistical analysis of the data also demonstrated a negative correlation between BHBA levels (r =-0.57; P<0.01) and cheese yield. Multiple logistic regression showed that the increase of BHBA levels lowered pregnancy probability (odds ratio = 0.406; P<0.05). In particular, pregnancy probability was lower than 50% in buffaloes with BHBA values higher than 0.25 mmol/L. In conclusion, the metabolic condition due to higher milk yield, climatic conditions and milk fat synthesis caused an increase of metabolites in both blood and milk. Fat mobilization worsened also cheese yield, animal welfare and reproductive efficiency. The possibility of using some metabolites assayed in the milk as risk indicators for some metabolic pathologies may represent a new border to increase animal welfare and improve buffalo production and reproduction.

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