Di Lorenzo, Ritamaria (2021) SKINCARE AND HAIRCARE ACTIVE INGREDIENTS DEVELOPMENT. [Tesi di dottorato]


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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Resource language: English
Di Lorenzo, Ritamariaritamaria.dilorenzo@unina.it
Date: 10 December 2021
Number of Pages: 171
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Farmacia
Dottorato: Scienza del farmaco
Ciclo di dottorato: 34
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
D'Auria, Maria Valeriamadauria@unina.it
Date: 10 December 2021
Number of Pages: 171
Keywords: Skincare; hair care; cosmetic science; hair aging; hair; skin
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/01 - Chimica analitica
Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/08 - Chimica farmaceutica
Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/09 - Farmaceutico tecnologico applicativo
Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/11 - Chimica e biotecnologia delle fermentazioni
Date Deposited: 20 Dec 2021 14:49
Last Modified: 28 Feb 2024 11:39
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/14310

Collection description

The present Doctoral Thesis deals with studies for evaluating the effectiveness of active products transmitted in cosmetics according to EU Regulation 1223/2009. This regulation governs the production and sale of cosmetic products and therefore has the purpose of harmonizing cosmetic legislation to create a single legal instrument of reference for all Member States of the European Union. In particular, according to Article 11, the information documentation relating to cosmetic products held by the person responsible for placing them on the market must provide evidence of the effects attributed to them. The cosmetic claim must be supported by demonstrable, relevant, and clear evidence founded on peer-reviewed data obtained through in vivo, ex vivo, or in vitro studies or with a combination thereof. The European Commission, up to now according to the Colipa orientation to avoid slowing down or hindering technical-scientific innovation, has preferred to avoid the publication of a list of accepted claims and scientific studies that could be used as this could limit innovation in the sector. Herein, the possibility to develop a range of tests supporting a cosmetic claim. The first study was carried out to provide by using chromatographic method contents of two of the essential active ingredients contained in the Helix aspersa mucus: • Allantoin, which regenerates the epidermal layers and acts as a nourishing and protective ingredient • Glycolic acid stimulates collagen and elastin production in the dermis and promotes epidermis renewal. It removes dead cells from the skin surface, thus giving the skin a brighter and more uniform, smooth, and hydrated appearance. Different percentages of snail mucus cosmetic creams were prepared, whose ability to hydrate the skin was evaluated by comparing the skin hydration and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) to a placebo, with a short-term human in-use test. Afterward, the use of functional substances of vegetable origin was investigated in treating different skin concerns. In Europe, functional plants are defined as Botanicals or Herbals used as they are or in processed form as ingredients for food, food supplements, cosmetics, medical devices, and drugs. As scientific evidence shows, all plant species/derivatives are potentially suitable for use medicines, cosmetics, or other products for human or animal use, respecting any restrictions that arise from the compatibility of the plant for the specific use and the conformity of the finished product, which derives from the specific reference legislation. For functional substances in the cosmetic field, reference is made to raw materials capable of giving specificity to the finished cosmetic product. The use of the plant or meristematic cells to develop new cosmetic active ingredients has numerous advantages over standard plant extracts, which is why ingredients obtained from undifferentiated plant cells in liquid culture have been considered in recent years by both cosmetic brands and final consumers. One of the most crucial advantages is safety, as all the purified extracts or compounds derived from plant cell cultures are clean or relatively free of pathogens or environmental contaminants. Cells cultures grow in the laboratory with sterile and controlled conditions without coming into contact with potentially harmful substances. Furthermore, the cells do not contain allergens. The second significant benefit is bio-sustainability; indeed, no agricultural land is exploited during the production process, no pesticides or fertilizers are used, there is reduced water consumption and little waste. The third advantage is that meristematic cells can be cultured in the laboratory-based on specific growth parameters monitored to obtain an optimal stimulation of the production of certain substances, the accumulation of which is of interest for cosmetic applications. In this way, it is possible to obtain plant extracts based on substances obtained from plant stem cells with a high concentration of reproducible molecules. Plant extracts are also always standardized, and producers can count on a reproducible supply of active material, not dependent on seasons or environmental conditions. This state assures high levels of consistency from one production batch to another, making these ingredients more suitable for meeting specific biological functions. 21-23 Today, the market trend is to use plant-based ingredients in unlimited amounts and reduce possible side effects. Hence the need to study two new botanical extracts of Cirsium eriophorum and Ficus carica, the first active as pore-refiner, the other as an anti-stress. Facial pore enlargement is considered a significant esthetic concern in skincare cosmetics. The pores live up to the critical function of keeping the skin surface hydrated and protected against external agents. The stress factors and the hormonal triggers can cause pore enlargement, causing a higher skin propensity to microbe aggressions and inflammatory reactions. Thus, two of the most requested activities in skincare cosmetics are reducing excessive sebum production and keeping functional pores, and Cirsium eriophorum cell culture extract was investigated for its role in sebum-control skin desquamation and anti-inflammation. The extract could govern essential markers related to sebum secretion and pore spread, like the 5α-reductase enzyme, which plays an essential role in sebum production, and the Kallikrein 5, a trypsin-like serine protease, which promotes skin flaking and antimicrobial response. Finally, the C. eriophorum extract shows a sebum-normalizing and pore refining activity in people with oily or acne-prone skins, suggesting its role in rebalancing altered skin conditions involved in pore-enlargement. Scientific evidence associated with the detoxifying effect of fruits and vegetables, the growing awareness of the long-term issues related to the use of chemical-filled cosmetics, the aging of the population, and the increase in living standards are the factors responsible for the growth of food-derived ingredients in the cosmetics market. Psychological stress activates catecholamine production, determines oxidation processes, and alters the lipid barrier functions in the skin. A Ficus carica cell suspension culture extract (FcHEx) was tested in vitro and in vivo to evaluate its action on managing the stress-hormone-damaged skin. The in vivo experiments were corroborated by the in vitro test results. The FcHEx reduced the epinephrine, lipid peroxide, interleukin 6, and protein carbonylation productions; it generated ceramide synthesis ameliorating the lipid barrier performance. The extract of the Ficus carica cell suspension cultures reduced the transepidermal water loss, desquamation, and sebum production, diminishing the facial greying, suggesting its role in alleviating the signs of psychological stress the skin. The in vivo activity of a butyrate derivative and its skin diffusion properties were analyzed within the framework of a new cosmetic active ingredient investigation. Nasty sensorial properties and disadvantageous physicochemical butyrate properties strongly limit its cosmetic use. Nevertheless, some butyrate derivatives, like phenylalanine butyramide, are odorless and maintain the pharmacokinetics safety profile of the butyric acid. This study assessed the FBA's skin permeation and its soothing and anti-reddening action to purpose its transmission in cosmetic products. The FBA permeation tests were evaluated in vitro using Franz cell, while the soothing action was determined in vivo through a colorimetric test. The results show that FBA is an innovative butyric acid derivative that exploits its benefits in the cosmetic field. Afterward, following a market need emerging with the COVID-19 disease, spread worldwide since December 2019, that has made it necessary to use personal protective equipment, especially face masks, due to the high transmission rate of COVID -19 139 and propensity to airborne infection 140. This condition has made it extremely difficult to wear makeup products, registering a sale decline. The producers have tried to compensate for inconvenience, like uneven foundation, smudged and messy masks, by developing new no transfer products. Whereby no transfer means the ability of a cosmetic product to completely resist the "transfer" from one surface to another, and therefore to remain adhered to the area of original application without "transferring" to the surface with which it comes into contact, in particular face masks defining a new claim word, better known as mask-proof. Companies are looking for tests that provide reliable scientific results, with objective scientific evidence, compliant with European guidelines, which can only be conducted by trained and qualified technical personnel and advanced scientific instruments. Herein, the development of a mask-proof protocol to test the no transferability of cosmetic products on surgical masks. The in vivo measurements are conducted with calibrated devices inside a closed room, maintained at controlled temperature and humidity, on a panel of volunteers selected respecting the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research. During the period as visiting Ph.D. Student, from June to October 2021, at the Institute for Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia, IQAC (Barcelona, Spain), and more precisely, with the Cosmetic and Textile innovation group managed by Prof. Luisa Coderch, my work focused on identifying the key drivers of diffusion on hair and key factors between Caucasian and Chinese diffusion differences, like lipid’s impact, pH and solvent impact. The project was sponsored by the Hair Fiber Discovery Domain of L’ORÉAL Research & Innovation, Aulnay-sous-Bois – France. A non-disclosure agreement covers the results of this project, so they cannot be reported in this thesis. The second project carried out during the period spent at IQAC was about studying the effect of lipids on hair aging. The lipid quantification and analysis were done using thin-film chromatography coupled to a flame detector (TLC-FID). Next, a study was made of the calorimetric behavior of the different lipids extracts obtained from the hair samples using thermogravimetric (TGA) and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) analysis. Their moisture content was assessed, and liposomes were formed to determine the organization of these lipids by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These tests allowed us to characterize the differences between white and brown Caucasian hairs and determine the role of the external and internal lipids in the hair aging process.


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