Trinchese, Giovanna (2014) Effetti della somministrazione di latte di vacca, latte di asina e latte umano su efficienza metabolica, stato infiammatorio e microbiota intestinale. [Tesi di dottorato]


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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: Italiano
Title: Effetti della somministrazione di latte di vacca, latte di asina e latte umano su efficienza metabolica, stato infiammatorio e microbiota intestinale
Date: 31 March 2014
Number of Pages: 109
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia
Scuola di dottorato: Medicina preventiva, pubblica e sociale
Dottorato: Scienze dell'alimentazione e della nutrizione
Ciclo di dottorato: 26
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
Mollica, Maria PinaUNSPECIFIED
Date: 31 March 2014
Number of Pages: 109
Uncontrolled Keywords: Latte, efficienza metabolica, mitocondri, infiammazione, microbiota
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/09 - Fisiologia
Additional Information: Il lavoro è stato svolto presso il Dipartimento di Biologia, via Mezzocannone 8, Napoli.
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2014 11:51
Last Modified: 15 Jul 2015 01:01


Scientific studies provide evidence that intake of milk and milk products is related to improved bone health and lower risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, especially in the western societies, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals as a food product and its growing consumption has raised some concerns. Cow milk (CM) consumption has been indeed recognized the leading cause for allergy and the role played by the intake of saturated fatty acids (from milk and dairy foods) on the development of several human pathologies is still debated. Benefits of breastfeeding are widely recognized. Human milk (HM) composition provides the standard for human infant nutrition and the beneficial effects produced by its bioactive/immunomodulatory factors (oligosaccharides, lactose, glycosaminoglycans) have been evidenced. In recent years there was a growing interest in donkey milk (DM). Several studies have clearly indicated that DM, owing to its remarkable nutritional value and probiotic properties coupled to reduced allergenicity and excellent palatability, is one of the best substitutes for allergic newborn if human milk (HM) is not available and cow milk (CM) administration is contraindicated. In this contest, the present study aims to highlight and to compare the changes in the regulation of energy balance, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammatory status, antioxidant/detoxifying defences and gut microbiota composition in rats treated with raw HM supplementation as compared to rats treated with an iso-energetic amount of raw CM or DM. Male Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups, were individually caged in a temperature controlled room at 24°C under a 12-h light/dark cycle with free access to food and water. Three groups were supplemented with iso-energetic amount of raw CM, DM or HM (21, 48 or 22 mL/day, respectively) for 4 weeks. Another group, receiving only standard diet, was used as control. At the end of the treatment, energy balance and body composition were determined. Triglycerides, cholesterol and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNF-α) levels and HOMA index were measured in blood serum. At hepatic level, redox status (GSH/GSSG), antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-S transferase, GST; NADH quinone oxidoreductase, NQO1), mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, energy efficiency and oxidative stress were evaluated. Finally, gut microbiota composition was analyzed by pyrosequencing of DNA extracted from cecal content. Metabolisable energy intake was increased by CM, DM and HM treatment and improved animal energy expenditure resulted from HM and DM intake without any measurable effect on body weight gain, as compared to CM-treated or to control rats. Moreover HM treatment significantly increases body protein content. Serum glucose level in HM and DM-treated rats was significantly lower than that measured in other animals; in particular, HM-treated rats showed the lowest insulin concentration whereas the progressive reduction of HOMA index was evidenced in differently treated animals (Controllo>CM>DM>HM). Significantly lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were found in liver samples of HM and DM-treated rats, associated to decreased body weight, lipid gain and liver lipids. Moreover, the hypolipidemic effect produced by DM or HM intake paralleled with enhanced mitochondrial proton leakage. In addition, the association of decreased energy efficiency with reduced pro-inflammatory signs and the improved redox status or detoxifying enzyme activities in HM or DM-treated animals, indicated that anti-inflammatory effects were attributable, at least in part, to improved cyto-protection. Gut microbiota composition analyses showed, at phyla level, only minor differences among the groups, whereas, 10 genera were identified whose abundance was significantly affected by milk treatments. The maximum difference in genera-wide shift was observed between N and DM-treated groups, while DM and HM promoted similar effect on gut microbiota genera. HM and DM administration reduces inflammatory status and mitochondrial efficiency, improves glucose metabolism and increases antioxidant/detoxifying defences and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation compared to CM.


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