Novellino, Alessandro (2015) Assessment of landslide susceptibility in Structurally Complex Formations by integration of different A-DInSAR techniques. [Tesi di dottorato]


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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Title: Assessment of landslide susceptibility in Structurally Complex Formations by integration of different A-DInSAR techniques
Date: 31 March 2015
Number of Pages: 200
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e delle Risorse
Scuola di dottorato: Scienze della Terra
Dottorato: Analisi dei sistemi ambientalia
Ciclo di dottorato: 27
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
Calcaterra, DomenicoUNSPECIFIED
Cigna, FrancescaUNSPECIFIED
Ramondini, MassimoUNSPECIFIED
Date: 31 March 2015
Number of Pages: 200
Uncontrolled Keywords: SAR; Interferometry; landslide; Structurally Complex Formations; Bisaccia; Nerano; Costa della Gaveta; Sicily
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 04 - Scienze della terra > GEO/05 - Geologia applicata
Date Deposited: 13 Apr 2015 11:12
Last Modified: 24 Sep 2015 12:58
DOI: 10.6092/UNINA/FEDOA/10219


Instability events are recurring phenomena in Southern Italy due to its geological history and tectonic-geomorphological evolution leading to the occurrence of several formations identified as Structurally Complex Formations (SCFs; Esu, 1977) in a territory mainly composed of densely populated areas also in mountainous and hilly regions. SCFs are clay-dominant terrains that, usually, give origin from very-slow to extremely-slow phenomena (Cruden and Varnes, 1996) with a long evolutionary history made up of multiple reactivations that makes difficult their identification, monitoring and susceptibility evaluation. The study has been carried out from point-wise (Bisaccia, Costa della Gaveta and Nerano cases) to wide areas (Palermo province case) where crops out SCFs as the Termini sandstones Formation (CARG, 2011), the Varicoloured Clays of Calaggio Formation (Ciaranfi et al., 1973), the Varicoloured Clays Unit (Mattioni et al., 2006) the Sicilide Unit (Vitale and Ciarcia, 2013 and references therein), the Numidian Flysch (Johansson et al., 1998) and the Corleone Calcarenites (Catalano R. et al., 2002). The aim of this thesis is to produce updated Landslide Inventory Maps and, whenever possible, Landslide Susceptibility Maps following a new approach during the landslide mapping and landslide monitoring stages. The Landslide Inventory Maps have taken into account the combination of geological, geomorphological, and stereoscopic surveys, as well as engineering geological investigations, namely conventional techniques. In addition innovative Advanced-Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (A-DInSAR) techniques have been used: the Coherent Pixels Technique – CPT (Mora et al., 2003; Blanco et al., 2008), the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset – ISBAS (Sowter et al., 2013) and the Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar. Finally, the Weight of Evidence method (van Westen, 1993) has been chosen to generate the Landslide Susceptibility Maps only for the point-wise studies. In the case of Nerano (Province of Naples), the ISBAS analysis on ENVISAT images (for the period 2003-2010) has been carried out and compared with inclinometric and rainfall data. These have revealed several reactivations of a rotational slide + earth flow (Cruden and Varnes, 1996) that involves reworked clay olistostromes and limestone olistoliths inside the Termini sandstones Formation; even in recent years the landslide, despite many engineering works, has given evidence of a continuing activity. The results highlight a very slow movement in the detachment zone (<1 mm/yr), which assumes slightly higher values in the accumulation area (5 mm/yr). The Landslide Susceptibility Map confirms the high levels in the flow track and the accumulation area. In Bisaccia (Province of Avellino), a conglomeratic slab undergoes a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD; Pasuto and Soldati, 2013 and references therein) due to the bedrock consolidation, made of the Varicoloured Clays of Calaggio Formation. Here the CPT processing on ENVISAT images (covering the period between 2002 and 2010), displays a vertical displacement for the town center, suffering a progressively increasing velocity from the southern (4.2 mm/yr) to the northern (15.5 mm/yr) portion of the slab that localizes four different sectors. The pattern is confirmed from the building damage map. The landslides susceptibility reaches the highest values in the adjacent valleys and at the edges of each sector. Multiple datasets have been employed for the Costa della Gaveta case-study (Province of Potenza), these encompass: ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed constellations together with Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR). The A-DInSAR data have been compared with stereoscopic analysis and the available rainfall and inclinometric data. The analysis allows for the identification of 16 landslides (complexes and earth flows; Cruden and Varnes, 1996) developed in the Varicoloured Clays Unit that show, according to all the existing instruments, velocities between 1.5 and 30 mm/yr. The western side of Costa della Gaveta slope is the portion which suffers the highest landslides susceptibility levels. In the Province of Palermo (northwestern Sicily) information deriving from A-DInSAR processing, specifically the ISBAS technique, have been focused on three subareas (Piana degli Albanesi, Marineo and Ventimiglia di Sicilia) for a total extension of 182 Km2 where standard A-DInSAR algorithms showed limitations due to the widespread presence of densely vegetated areas. The radar-detected landslides have been validated through field geomorphological mapping and stereoscopic analysis proving to be highly consistent especially with slow phenomena. The outcome has allowed to confirm 152 preexisting landslides, to detect 81 new events and to change 133 previously mapped landslides, modifying their typology, boundary and/or state of activity. The study demonstrates how a better knowledge of landslide development and their cause-effect mechanisms provided by new Earth Observation techniques is useful for Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Maps. The research project has been carried out at the University of Naples "Federico II", including nine months (September 2013 – May 2014) spent in the United Kingdom, at the British Geological Survey under the supervision of Dr. Francesca Cigna and Dr. Jordan Colm and at the University of Nottingham (Department of Civil Engineering), under the supervision of Dr. Andrew Sowter where the ISBAS technique has been recently developed.


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