Conturso, Marielena (2016) EFFECT OF FUEL MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONALITIES ON COMBUSTION-GENERATED NANOPARTICLES. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Title: EFFECT OF FUEL MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONALITIES ON COMBUSTION-GENERATED NANOPARTICLES
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Conturso, Marielenamarielena.conturso@unina.it
Date: 23 March 2016
Number of Pages: 114
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale
Scuola di dottorato: Ingegneria industriale
Dottorato: Ingegneria chimica
Ciclo di dottorato: 28
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
D'Anna, Andreaanddanna@unina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
D'Anna, AndreaUNSPECIFIED
Date: 23 March 2016
Number of Pages: 114
Uncontrolled Keywords: Soot; biofuel; flames; alkylbenzenes; particle size distribution; fluorescence; incandescence.
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/25 - Impianti chimici
Date Deposited: 11 Apr 2016 19:38
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2016 10:32
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/10708

Abstract

Atmospheric pollution is one of the most discussed topics of recent decades. Short and long-term effects on climate, flora, fauna, and human health are visible now. Thus a great slice of the research world is addressing its forces towards the study of possible ways to put down pollutant emissions. Many different routes are followed in order to address this purpose: after treatment of car systems, fuel reformulation or substitution, severe legislation, etc. Despite of the efforts, a definitive solution has not yet been found. In particular it seems that all mechanisms adopted until now to reduce emissions of carbonaceous particulate leave unaltered or in certain cases enhance the concentration of fine and ultrafine particles. Understanding how fuels break down and react in a combustion environment is essential to be able to act on the particles reduction. This thesis has indeed the purpose to investigate how the fuel features and its amount influence the production of nano- and soot particles in lab-scale reactors performed in different conditions. Two classes of compounds have been studied in this work: furanic fuels and alkylbenzenes. Furanic fuels derive from green source, lignocellulosic biomass, and are seen as possible engine fuels substitute because of their properties and costs, but a deep study on their effect on nanoparticle production has to be carried on. Alkylbenzenes are components of real engine fuels and in spite of some their advantageous features as anti-knocking and the high energy content, they are strong soot precursors enhancer. An experimental study has been conducted in laboratory atmospheric flames performed in two different mixing configurations: laminar premixed and opposed-flow diffusion flames. For the analysis of the particle production in flame laser induced emissions and temperature measurements have been performed as in-situ diagnostic techniques, while particles size distribution functions have been obtained by differential mobility analysis system as ex-situ technique. Results have shown for alkylbenzenes a strong dependence of their sooting propensity on the length and branching of the side alkyl chain, and a particular behavior of xylenes in oxidative environment has been observed. Furanic fuels have shown a very different behavior depending on the mixing flame configuration passing from the role of soot reducer in premixed flame, to the role of soot enhancer in opposed-flow diffusion flame, especially in pyrolytic environment. It is worth noting that in premixed flame configuration it was found that although furans behave as soot reducer, they do not have effect on nanoparticles concentrations; they even entail particles enhancement in certain conditions. A comparison with other oxygen-containing compounds previously studied in the same operating conditions has been also reported to better understand the role of the fuel molecular structure. Finally it was verified that the different techniques are in agreement among them allowing to draw definite conclusions about the effect of these fuels on particulate formation in the explored conditions.

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