Evidente, Marco (2016) Phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for the integrated management of noxious weeds. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Title: Phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for the integrated management of noxious weeds
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Evidente, Marcomarco.evidente@unina.it
Date: 29 March 2016
Number of Pages: 224
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Agraria
Scuola di dottorato: Scienze agrarie e agro-alimentari
Dottorato: Agrobiologia e agrochimica
Ciclo di dottorato: 28
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
Carputo, Domenicodomenico.carputo@unina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
Cimmino, AlessioUNSPECIFIED
Date: 29 March 2016
Number of Pages: 224
Uncontrolled Keywords: Phytotoxins, weeds, absolute configuration, biological assays, NMR.
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/06 - Chimica organica
Date Deposited: 13 Apr 2016 15:10
Last Modified: 31 Oct 2016 09:06
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/10766

Abstract

Weeds infest economically important crops causing marked losses in agrarian production, forests, and ornamental heritages. Weed pests, including parasitic plants, have always being recognised as one of the most serious agricultural and environmental problems due to competition with the growth of agrarian crops and forest plants by subtraction of water, nutrients, light and by the serious obstacles they represent for agronomic activities. A number of weed management strategies have been followed in agriculture production, including mechanical, cultural, chemical, and biological strategies. The use of soil physical mechanical and cultural methods do not provide a satisfactory solution to weed problems. On the other hand, the use of chemical pesticides differing widely in respect to spectrum, unit activity, crop safety, toxicology, and environmental effects has increased herbicidal resistance and environmental and toxicological concerns raise a question mark over their large scale use. Consequently, many efforts were focused on the development of alternative strategies based on the use of natural products and in particular on the use of fungal phytotoxins alone as natural herbicides and/or in combination with fungal producers in a more efficient and integrated management. Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites that belong to different classes of naturally occurring compounds. They play an important role in the induction of disease symptoms in agrarian and forest plants and weeds. This thesis reports on the isolation, purification and chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by four fungi proposed as potential mycoherbicides for the biological control of some noxious weeds: a) Diaporte gulyae and D. kongii, fungi proposed as potential mycoherbicides of Carthamus lanatus L. ssp. lanatus, a widespread winter-growing annual weed of both pastures and crop throughout Australia introduced from the Mediterranean region. b) Alternaria sonchi, fungus evaluated as a possible biocontrol agent of Sonchus arvensis L., commonly called perennial sowthistle, a plant species considered to be an important weed in Europe and North America as it infests many habitats such as cultivated fields, roadsides, pastures and rangelands, railway embankments, and lawns. c) Phoma chenopodiicola, fungus proposed as potential mycoherbicide for the control of Chenopodium album (common lambsquarters or fat-hen), one of the most successful colonizing species, which has been reported to infest plantations of sugar beets, potatoes, maize, cereals, and vegetables all over the world.

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