Bozza, Anna (2016) Ecosystems And Engineering: A Working Synergy Towards City Resilience To Natural Disasters. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Tipologia del documento: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Titolo: Ecosystems And Engineering: A Working Synergy Towards City Resilience To Natural Disasters
Autori:
AutoreEmail
Bozza, Annaanna.bozza@unina.it
Data: 31 Marzo 2016
Numero di pagine: 321
Istituzione: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Dipartimento: Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale
Scuola di dottorato: Ingegneria industriale
Dottorato: Ingegneria dei materiali e delle strutture
Ciclo di dottorato: 28
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
Mensitieri, Giuseppegiuseppe.mensitieri@unina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
Manfredi, Gaetano[non definito]
Prota, Andrea[non definito]
Asprone, Domenico[non definito]
Data: 31 Marzo 2016
Numero di pagine: 321
Parole chiave: resilience, urban resilience quantification, seismic insurance, natural disasters, economic resilience
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 08 - Ingegneria civile e Architettura > ICAR/09 - Tecnica delle costruzioni
Depositato il: 13 Apr 2016 00:19
Ultima modifica: 31 Ott 2016 10:58
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/11078

Abstract

Climate change, natural and human-induced risks always threat the precarious safety of contemporary societies. As a consequence, resilience represents a key issue for modern societies, as the capability to withstand and effectively recover from disasters. But resilience is also strictly related to sustainability. Any urban transformation has to ensure the safeguarding of communities’ assets and resources and human well-being, that is economic, environmental and social sustainability of the urban environment. The present PhD Thesis work has been developed to address issues related to resilience of urban systems to natural catastrophe risks. Resilience has been studied from multiple perspectives, trying to catch its high interdisciplinary nature. The most critical issues related to the quantification of resilience at the urban scale and to the development of mitigation instruments devoted at enhancing disaster resilience at the global scale are discussed and investigated. Primarily the origin of the concept of resilience are investigated, as well as the variability of its definition within various subject area, which resilience is applied in. A novel understanding of resilience is proposed, as the theoretical basis, which the thesis is based on. Resilience is defined as the engineering one in the sense of the ecosystems theory. In this view, it is the capability of a system to face an external stress and bounce back from it to an equilibrium condition, that can be the same but also different from the pre-event one. The deep link between resilience and sustainability is also highlight, according to a human-centric perspective. Resilience is, in fact, understood as one of the main factors contributing to sustainability. Accordingly, a city to be sustainable, has to be resilient too. Disaster resilience is first of all approached from a global, superurban perspective by developing methodologies for insurance-based products. Particularly, a methodology is presented for the modelling of an insurance model against seismic risk for private householders, which is based on the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard. A real case study application is also developed for the Italian residential building stock. Expected seismic losses are evaluated for the entire national territory, being evaluated at the single municipality level. Seismic insurance premiums are also evaluated, according to the actual exposure and annual rate for each municipality, according to different models, considering diverse excess and maximum coverage levels. Furthermore, a performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) methodology is described for the development of curves enabling to forecast economic losses, given the magnitude of the expected seismic event. Curves are obtained through regression analysis, which are performed on scenario analysis’ results, based on seismic events collected in the Italian catalogue of historical earthquakes from the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV). According to a multi-scale approach, resilience is addressed from a global to a urban scale. A methodological framework for the quantification of urban resilience is then proposed. It shows the chance to model any urban environment as a hybrid social-physical network (HSPN) and to assess its performance level according to the complex network theory. The human component of the modelled HSPN is then further considered through the integration of social indicators, enabling to evaluate the life quality level and the happiness of citizens. Finally an integrated framework is described, which methodologies can be integrated in, in order to homogenize data and to compare them, to finally obtain a synthetic resilience index. A rigorous methodology for the quantification of resilience of HSPNs is also described. The trend of the scaling relationships between urban size and shape and the seismic resilience level is investigated. Furthermore, a real application is developed for case study of the Quartieri Spagnoli, the historical centre of the city of Naples (Campania, Italy). Here the connectivity level between couple of inhabitants and between inhabitants and school buildings is investigated, together with the global urban efficiency and the seismic resilience. Finally, also a probability-based methodology for the quantification of urban resilience to diverse event typology is presented, particularly earthquakes and flow-type landslide. Alternative resilience metrics are herein proposed, accounting for the initial state of damage level and the number of deallocated citizens. A further resilience measure is also proposed, begin totally independent on the simulated event typology. The robustness of the proposed metrics is then evaluated, through the implementation of seismic and landslide scenario analysis within a real case study for the city of Sarno (Campania, Italy).

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