Minolfi, Giulia (2017) Advanced geochemical survey and environmental multiscalar risk assessment methodologies applied on topsoils of Campania region (Italy) and in selected areas with high anthropic impact. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Title: Advanced geochemical survey and environmental multiscalar risk assessment methodologies applied on topsoils of Campania region (Italy) and in selected areas with high anthropic impact
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Minolfi, Giuliagiulia.minolfi@unina.it
Date: April 2017
Number of Pages: 167
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e delle Risorse
Dottorato: Scienze della Terra, dell'ambiente e delle risorse
Ciclo di dottorato: 29
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
Fedi, Mauriziofedi@unina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
De Vivo, BenedettoUNSPECIFIED
Albanese, StefanoUNSPECIFIED
Tarvainen, TimoUNSPECIFIED
Date: April 2017
Number of Pages: 167
Uncontrolled Keywords: geochemistry, soil, risk assessment
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 04 - Scienze della terra > GEO/08 - Geochimica e vulcanologia
Date Deposited: 06 May 2017 07:48
Last Modified: 14 Mar 2018 10:10
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/11529
DOI: 10.6093/UNINA/FEDOA/11529

Abstract

Environmental quality is fundamental for the well being of human life. Environmental risk assessment and analysis have a crucial role for guaranteeing the safety of the population, especially in intensive urbanized and industrialized areas, such as the Campania region (Italy). In Italy, after the Legislative Decree 152/2006, the environmental risk assessment has become mandatory for contaminated lands such as brownfields and dismantled industrial activities. Despite the importance and fragility of the soil, it is rarely taken into account as a resource to be preserved. Moreover, due to the heterogeneity of many variables involved in the process, the environmental and human health risk assessments are used at the scale of a site, while the regional evaluation is very difficult, and keeps the administration sceptical in taking it into account for land planning and decision-making processes. During the last years, some international methodologies for ecological and human health risk assessment have been developed by national environmental agencies in many industrialized countries. An idea recently took place regarding the protection of soils: the monitoring of soil should be limited only to risk areas, as opposed to monitoring systems covering the entire territory. Focusing monitoring in selected areas would help to define priorities, increase efficiency of monitoring activities and reduce the monitoring costs. This is the reason why many methodologies for preliminary and simplified risk assessment of (potentially) contaminated sites, for the prioritization and planning of soil remediation and protection programmes, were developed. The only lack that these methodologies have is the absence of the spatial analysis. The aim of this research was to implement the human health risk assessment. For the purposes of the study we used 3535 topsoil samples, collected across the whole regional territory. The concentrations of 53 elements have been determined at Bureau Veritas Analytical Lab. Ltd (Vancouver, Canada), by means of an Aqua Regia extraction followed by a combination of ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. After the statistical and cartographic elaboration of these regional dataset, we integrated one of the model of relative risk assessment for single contaminated sites with spatial analysis procedures. In order to support the spatial assessment of contaminated sites at the regional scale, the most suitable tool is the Geographic Information System (GIS). A new approach was applied, in order to assess/rank environmental risk by using geospatial analysis in a GIS platform to adapt a European-wide accepted methodology for the preliminary assessment of human health risks at single contaminated sites to a regional scale. The developed regional risk assessment methodology can be used by the regional administrations to select at regional level the "problem or priority areas". The identification of the problem areas is necessary for developing an efficient monitoring system and to produce a ranking of the risky areas to be used as a reference in determining the development of intervention plans, for better addressing the resources dedicated to the environmental remediation of widely contaminated regions. The methodology chosen as a reference for the risk assessment procedures is the PRA.MS (Preliminary risk assessment model for the identification of problem areas for soil contamination in Europe, 2005). Following the PRA.MS guidelines, a conceptual model for the human health risk assessment for the Campania region has been based on four different exposure routes: 1) dispersion of contaminants in groundwater, 2) dispersion in surface water, 3) dispersion in air, 4) direct contact with the contaminated media (soils). The source, the pathway and the receptor for each of the exposure route are scored on the base of a quantitative or qualitative analysis of some featuring characteristics (parameters). A total of 14 representative parameters were chosen, basing on the available regional data for Campania. Starting from these parameters values, the information is aggregated to higher levels in several steps, adopting a mixed additive and multiplicative algorithm, up to the overall risk score. The final risk map is classified according four classes of risk. This map was useful to identify the problem areas, characterized by a higher risk, where more detailed analysis had to be carried out. The identified area was located in a wide territory in the center of Campania region, between Avellino and Salerno municipalities, an high populated zone, where intensive agricultural and industrial activities are well developed. A high density survey has been carried out in this priority area; the concentrations of 53 elements have been measured on 102 new topsoil samples, followed by statistic and cartographic elaboration of the 15 potentially toxic elements (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) for which the Italian legislation (D.Lgs. 152/06) established the trigger and action limits, by defining the contamination threshold values (CSC) for the amount of metals in topsoils or waters. The new methodology of GIS-based human health risk assessment has been again applied, in order to select sites of particular significance in terms of danger for the resident population. Some small areas characterized by high risk have been identified. New in situ measurements and classic follow up risk assessment should be here carried out to confirm if remediation actions are needed to guaranteeing the safety of the population. Other works has been contemporaneously elaborated during the PhD. Six months have been spent at the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), where a work on a humus samples dataset have been carried out, under the supervision of Dr. Timo Tarvainen. Moreover a new Geochemical Atlas will be completed based on inorganic elements and organic compounds concentrations in marine sediments samples, collected in the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno.

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