Visconti, Cristina (2017) Misure water sensitive in contesti di vulnerabilità socio-ambientale. Pratiche di resilienza per l’adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici a Napoli Est. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: Italiano
Title: Misure water sensitive in contesti di vulnerabilità socio-ambientale. Pratiche di resilienza per l’adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici a Napoli Est
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Visconti, Cristinavisconti.cri@gmail.com
Date: 10 April 2017
Number of Pages: 384
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Architettura
Dottorato: Architettura
Ciclo di dottorato: 29
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
Russo, Michelangelorussomic@unina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
Russo Ermolli, SergioUNSPECIFIED
D’Alençon Castrillon, RenatoUNSPECIFIED
Date: 10 April 2017
Number of Pages: 384
Uncontrolled Keywords: Acqua; Resilienza; Misure Community-Based; Dispositivi Socio-Tecnici
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 08 - Ingegneria civile e Architettura > ICAR/12 - Tecnologia dell'architettura
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2017 15:31
Last Modified: 07 Mar 2018 12:57
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/11753

Abstract

Keywords: Water, Resilience, Community-Based Measures, Socio-Technical Devices. Current territorial transformation processes, characterized by an increasing urbanization, have resulted in dominance of impervious surfaces (roads, parking lots, roof tops, and so on) and a decrease in the amount of natural soils that are necessary for the recirculation of storm water in the natural system. This has caused harmful effects on water quality and other notable impacts on climate. The lack of draining surfaces, reduction of vegetation and natural soils, and diversion of precipitations into centralized sewage systems, provoke a disruption of the natural water cycle of evaporation/infiltration/precipitation (small water cycle), with a reduction of evaporation on land that leads to a decrease in precipitation. The undermining of hydrological cycle in the urban environment, due to the impairment of ecological services, essential for a resilient urban system (evaporative cooling, rainwater interception, storage and infiltration, shading of vegetated surfaces), highlights how the urban system should be considered as a complex system, interdependent and connected to natural ecosystem. Therefore it is essential that an innovative water management should be included in the climate mitigation and adaptation strategies, developing a holistic and systemic approach to urban design and planning, capable to ensure the reactivation of ecological balance, strengthening the adaptive capacity of the urban system and its resilience to climate change. The Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is defined as the process of integrating water cycle management with the built environment through planning and urban design. An integrative approach to water resource and architecture is fundamental to design solutions that couple the improvement of quality of spaces and the increase of well-being with environmental goals and risks reductions. The research project focuses on the implementation of Water Urban Sensitive Design (WSUD) in socio-vulnerable context. The aim is to develop WSUD measures as practice of resilience, attempting to identify appropriate technical solutions and environmental design strategies at the local level as innovative tools to foster a transition toward sustainable habits coupled with social equity and inclusiveness. The work tests WSUD as approach to cope with pluvial floods and heat waves in the area of East Naples (South Italy), where relevant socio-ecological challenges exist and where the opposition between developing world and developed areas is proved to be unfitting. The study works at the micro-scale level and in the community dimension in order to promote a specific upgrading process for the built environment. Everyday life practices, bottom-up tools and low-tech solutions were combined in an integrative approach to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation focused on community-based knowledge. The thesis develops a socio-technical perspective on the integration of the water cycle in the built environment and the WSUD is specifically problematized considering the built environment as the place of interaction of ecological-technical-social elements stressed by everyday risks. Especially in cases of socio-cultural and economic deprivation, the characteristics of built environment play a decisive role in increasing socio-environmental vulnerabilities, limiting at the same time the implementation of WSUD options. The research strategy focuses on the case study of East Naples, an example of deprived multi-risk area (climate change-seismic-volcanic-environmental risks). It was used to test and design a strategy of contextual sustainability based on the combination of community knowledge with spatial and technical adaptation measures to build “local” resilience. The study moves from the hypothesis that local resilience can be increased coupling community engagement and the retrofit of existing building stock and open spaces through sustainable and participative actions. Multiple methods and tools were used during the study, like qualitative analysis, field work and ethnographic diary, interviews. A “living lab” was created in the experimental part, involving the local community to test the participative research methodology. The aim of the laboratory was to produce knowledge about climate change impacts at local level. Furthermore, a workshop based on “service leaning” and “learning by doing” methodologies was done in the final stage (involving students, experts and local actors). These research tools were developed in order to include the community in the process of building of local knowledge and in order to answer the main question “how can the community resilience enhance the adaptive capacity of the built environment as prerequisite for the implementation of technological solutions in a context of social-environmental vulnerability?”. During the experimental phase a small-scale technological device for integrated water management was constructed (for rainwater collection and reuse) in a social garden. The self-construction process combined community-based knowledge with more effective low-tech measures for built environment up-grading in low-income communities.

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