Loponte, Rosa (2017) Use of alternative protein sources in poultry and fish nutrition. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Resource language: English
Title: Use of alternative protein sources in poultry and fish nutrition
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Loponte, Rosarosaloponte1991@libero.it
Date: 10 December 2017
Number of Pages: 225
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: dep15
Dottorato: phd095
Ciclo di dottorato: 30
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
Cringoli, Giuseppecringoli@unina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
Bovera, FulviaUNSPECIFIED
Date: 10 December 2017
Number of Pages: 225
Keywords: Insect meal;PAPs; poultry nutrition; fish nutrition.
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/20 - Zoocolture
Date Deposited: 08 Jan 2018 12:40
Last Modified: 22 Mar 2019 10:09
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/12166

Collection description

The global increase of the world population started during the ‘60s and the most credited FAO estimates predicted that by the mid-twentieth century the human population will still grow to reach about 9 billion. Likewise, in order to satisfy the nutritional needs of both humans and livestock and pet animals, the demand of raw materials and in particular protein sources will increase. It is estimated that in the near future the production of meat will increase of 50%, and the demand of fish, milk and eggs of 75%. The most important protein sources used in animal nutrition are the soybean meal and the fish meal; however, the production of these two raw materials are linked to several environmental problems. Recently, the researchers are studying the use of innovative protein sources alternative to the soybean and fish meal presenting the best possible characteristics such as: environmental sustainability, low production costs, high nutritional value and no antinutritional factor content. The insects and the processed animal proteins (PAPs) could be suitable protein sources in poultry and fish nutrition. The present thesis includes 6 experimental trials conducted along the three years of my PhD in Italy and in Greece in order to evaluate the possible utilization of innovative and alternative protein sources in poultry and in fish species. Regarding poultry, the studies has been conducted in Italy. The first step was to investigate the in vitro crude protein digestibility of different insect meals from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens and their correlation with chemical composition traits. The results showed that chitin is the main constituent of insect body able to affect the crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens larvae meals. Based on these results two in vivo trials were carried out on the use of the insect meals in the poultry diets. The first in vivo study was carried out on 80 broilers (from 30 to 62 days of age) equally divided into two groups fed, respectively, a corn-soybean meal based diet and a diet in which Tenebrio molitor larvae meal totally replaced the soybean meal. The diets were isoproteic and isoenergetic. No differences were observed on growth parameters, physical and chemical properties of the meat between the groups. The presence of the chitin in the insect meal increased the length and the weight of the full intestine, the weight of the spleen, the production of the caecal volatile fatty acids; and it affected negatively the apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients and in particular of the proteins. In addition, broilers fed the insects had a lower albumin to globulin ratio in the blood samples than the group fed soybean meal and this suggests a better disease resistance and immune response of birds linked to the prebiotic activity of the chitin. The second in vivo study was carried out on 108 laying hens (from 24 to 45 weeks of age). Following a scheme similar to that of the previous trial, the hens were equally dived into two groups fed two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets. The control group fed a corn-soybean meal based diet and the other group fed a diet in which an Hermetia illucens larvae meal was included as total replacement of the soybean meal. The use of the insect meal did not show negative effects on the health status of the animals and on the feed conversion ratio. However, the complete replacement of soybean meal showed negative effects on the feed intake and, as a consequence, on the laying performance. The chitin content of the the Hermetia illucens diet negatively affected the ileal apparent digestibility of the nutrients and, in particular, of the proteins. The eggs quality was positively affected by the insect meal based diet, in particular the yolk resulted richer in PUFA, n-6 and n-3 and showed lower cholesterol content than the hens fed on the soybean meal based diet. The three studies on fish species were carried out in Greece. The first step was to evaluate the suitability of some processed animal proteins carrying out a preliminary in vivo digestibility trial; a control diet (with only fish meal) was compared to six isoproteic and isoenergetic diets including, respectively, poultry feather meal (FeM) alone (4 diets with 15, 25, 50 and 75% of fish meal substitution) and a mix of processed animal proteins meals (2 diets including feather meal, offal meal and blood meal (BOF) added to the diet in equal amounts to replace 50 and 75 % of the fish meal). The trial evidenced a decrease of nutrients digestibility for feather meal containing diets starting from the 15% fish meal substitution rate diet. The diets containing a mix of processed animal proteins, instead, showed better results, with the 50% fish meal substitution rate diet presenting values comparable to the control diet. A worsening of digestibility was registered, instead for the 75% substitution rate diet. After this preliminary trial two growth trials were carried out in order to evaluate the growth performance of the European sea bass fed on the only feather meal based diets (360 European sea bass juveniles) and the mix of ingredients previously described (225 juveniles European sea bass). The diets with the only inclusion of feather meal put in evidence that the only suitable diet was the 15% FM. The experimental diet with the mix of the ingredient showed promising results, because the inclusion of 50% BOF showed growth performance results comparable to the control diet.

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