Paradisone, Valeria (2018) Zinc limitation and toxicity in crops and effects of Silicon in ameliorating stress response. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Resource language: English
Title: Zinc limitation and toxicity in crops and effects of Silicon in ameliorating stress response.
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Paradisone, Valeriavaleriaparadisone@libero.it
Date: December 2018
Number of Pages: 254
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Biologia
Dottorato: Biologia
Ciclo di dottorato: 31
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
Cozzolino, SalvatoreUNSPECIFIED
Tutor:
nomeemail
Esposito, SergioUNSPECIFIED
Blasco, BegonaUNSPECIFIED
Date: December 2018
Number of Pages: 254
Keywords: Zinc; Silicon
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/04 - Fisiologia vegetale
Date Deposited: 03 Jan 2019 14:20
Last Modified: 30 Jun 2020 08:59
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/12492

Collection description

Agriculture is the primary food source for human sustainability. The improvement of food provision through agriculture represents a major topic for plant biology. In addition to drought, salinity and starvation, the remediation from soil contaminations by metalloids and heavy metals is important to guarantee food safety. Metalloids are beneficial and necessary elements for higher plants at low concentrations, but high levels of these result severely toxic both for plants and humans. Soil contamination induced by an excess of some metalloids is a widespread problem over the world, causing economic disease and health threatens by human consumption. In addition to metalloids, heavy metal pollution is rapidly increasing and present many environmental problems. Among heavy metals, some metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) have no known biological role while others such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) are required in small amount for normal plant growth and developments but are extremely toxic to plants and animals slightly larger than the required concentrations. While some metalloids and heavy metals effects are largely identified, a number of potential ameliorative effects of silicon (Si) are actually discussed. In fact, the silicon utilization as fertilizer is a recent suggestion to guarantee a compatible and sustainable agriculture inducing plant growth and to improve biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, such as metalloids deficiency or toxicity. In the present doctoral thesis, we analyzed three horticultural plants of great agronomic importance, exhibiting different tolerance to Zn, Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus, Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco, and barley (Hordeum vulgare). These species were exposed to Zn toxicity and deficiency in order to evaluate the contribution of compatible osmolytes, in the mechanism(s) of tolerance to Zn stress. As further control, the effects of a heavy metal such as cadmium were tested on barley plants in order to discriminate and confront the damages induced by polluting metals with those caused by limitation or excess of a nutritional microelement as zinc. Furthermore, we studied the possible beneficial effect of Si on ameliorating plant stress conditions in Hordeum vulgare. In conclusion, this project suggests that metals excess and/or deficiency induces in crops substantially similar responses depending on their capability to manage the stress induced by pollutants. Furthermore, stress symptoms induced by metals are clearly mitigated by Si supply, thus improving plant tolerance mechanisms such as photosynthesis and photorespiratory systems.

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