Enviromental geochemestry study to define baseline (background) values of toxic elements in an high-urbanized and industrialized area (Comune di Casoria)
Civitillo, Diego (2010) Enviromental geochemestry study to define baseline (background) values of toxic elements in an high-urbanized and industrialized area (Comune di Casoria). [Tesi di dottorato] (Inedito)
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Following study presents the results of the analysis on top soils, soil profiles and tap water collected in Casoria municipal area, located at north of city of Naples (Italy). Dot, interpolated and baseline geochemical maps of elements potentially harmful to human health were compiled using concentration data of 136 soil samples from the metropolitan area of Comune di Casoria (12 km2). Each sample has been analyzed by ICP-MS and for the compilation of baseline geochemical maps, were used a multifractal IDW interpolation method and spectral analysis (S-A) using a geochemistry-dedicated GIS (GeoDAS). The geochemical baseline in an area of anthropogenic impact, such as the Neapolitan territory, includes the geogenic natural content (background) and the anthropogenic contribution in the soils. Maps obtained by the S-A method show high baseline values for some metallic elements (Pb, Zn, Sb, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu) which denote a clear anthropogenic contribution, due to the long period of constant human activities in the studied area. These maps also show a geogenic contribution derived from Neapolitan volcanic rock and soil (As principally shows high natural values). Geochemical risk maps has been compiled on the base of Italian Environmental Law (D.Lgs. 152/06), Pb, Zn, Cd, Tl and Sn soil concentration, exceed Italian environmental D.Lgs 152/06 in Casoria several areas, principally in the northern urbanized and industrialized sector, in the western sector on the City of Neaples border, and in the southern sector in correspondence of Arpino urban area, highway and via nazionale delle puglie, also Cu and Cr exceed in southern sector. The Pb isotopic ratios obtained from TIMS analysis for surface soils, soil profiles, has been plotted. on the X-Y axis of graphs. In this work has been reported the 208Pb/207Pb - 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/204Pb – 206Pb/204Pb ratios of our samples and those representing the isotopic signature from three of the pesticides most commonly used in the studied area: Azin Pb30, Crittam WG and Cosan’s (Grezzi et al., 2010). As end-members of these plots, have been chosen literature data of both geologic and anthropic sources, such as the volcanic related deposits from Vesuvius activities (Ayuso et al., 1998) and Yellow Tuff (D’Antonio et al., 1995, 2007) the gasoline (Monna et al., 1997-1999; Chiaradia et al., 1999), the aerosol deposits (Monna et al., 1999; Tommasini et al.,2000, Geagea et al., 2008) Bagnoli ex industrial brownfield soils (Tarzia et al 2002) and Neapolitan soils (Cicchella et al.2008) . Isotopic analyses confirm what obtained from chemical analysis and data elaboration; high level of contamination made by anthropic sources which overlay natural source. Infact results are suggestive of 2 principal components, anthropogenic one, due to industrial and waste incineration detected principally on top soil levels, and geogenic one, detected in the northern sector of studied area and in the bottom soil levels (which already shows an anthropic influence) representative of the Neapolitan area volcanic rocks. Isotopic data produced an compared with Neapolitan soils isotopic data confirm the same source of contamination typical of high urbanized and industrialized areas. In conclusion, Casoria soils shows different levels of contamination made by anthropic activities (vehicular traffic, industrial works, waste disposal and burning) in accordance with previously works in Neapolitan Province and Campania Region (Agro Aversano and Domitio littoral). Is possible to affirm that Casoria is part of a seriously contaminated area which includes the highest urbanized and industrialized sites of Campania Region and the sites in which in the last 30 years illegal waste dumping were conduced (City of Naples, provincial northern area, and the National Interest Sites of Domitio littoral and Agro Aversano). Cd, Pb and Zn Contamination level and Degree of contamination confirm spatially results obtained, and suggest that immediate safety procedure should be planned in the selected areas to limit the potential interaction between high environmental contamination and human health.
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