Fasano, Evelina (2011) Evaluation of phthalate contents in food. [Tesi di dottorato] (Unpublished)
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|Item Type:||Tesi di dottorato|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Food contamination; Plasticizers; Packaging|
|Date Deposited:||07 Dec 2011 16:44|
|Last Modified:||30 Apr 2014 19:47|
Phthalates (PAEs) are more investigated food contaminants because they are considered Endocrine Disruptors (ED), they induce early onset of puberty in female or produce negative effects on the male reproductive system in rodents and in humans. Fatty foods, packed foods, retail-packed and cooked foods can be contaminated by PAEs, in particular by DBP and DEHP. In fact, it was found that food manipulation and so the packaging process can be considered as possible critical point for PAE contamination. The principal aim of this study regarded the evaluation of DBP and DEHP levels in foodstuff commonly used to obtain knowledge about the presence of these contaminants in food. Besides, children exposure to DBP and DEHP was considered by evaluation of intake related to principal meal (lunch), administered to school. In this way it was possible to know the PAE intake by lunch and because school courses are packed it was possible to investigate if the packaging process can influence DBP and DEHP levels. Because the PAE found results were probably attributable to the contact between courses and dishes employed in the catering firm it was decided to evaluate empirically the migration of some compounds during the contact between food and packaging using food simulants. This step regarded the simultaneous detection of some phthalates, alkylphenol, BisphenolA and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate by preparation of migration tests and then the evaluation of different extraction method was carried out. For the problems about the detection of some lipophilic pollutants in food matrixes the application of QuEChERS method to simultaneous detection of phthalates, alkylphenol, BisphenolA and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate was carried out considering different food matrices, solid or liquid. The migration tests and the application of QuEChERS method were carried out in Department of Environmental Chemistry of CSIC in Barcelona (Spain). About the first aim, almost 60 foodstuffs were collected in a catering industry of Naples, ready meals before packaging and at the consuming time were obtained, respectively, in the same catering industry and at the served schools. The packaging consisted in polyethylene-coated aluminium (PE/Al) dishes thermally welded by polyethyleneterephthalate-coated aluminium (PET/Al) foil. These samples were processed using Tsumura et al (2001) method. For the preparation of migration texts some common food packaging were collected and incubated at 40ºC for 10 days. To study the two extraction method 10 wine tops were incubated at 40ºC for 10 days and 10 in ultrasounds bath for 15 min. The samples were processed as described in the UNI-EN 1186 method. The optimization of QuEChERS method was obtained by analysis of some quality controls and considering the obtained results, solid food and packed liquid foods were after processed. In particular for each sample, lipidic extraction was carried out by acetonitrile and reactive 1 (Sodium citrate, Magnesium sulphate, Sodium chloride), the extract was cleaned up by reactive 2 (PSA, C 18 EC and Magnesium sulphate) and the determination was carried by GC/MS. It was found a diffuse contamination by DBP and DEHP, confirming the ubiquity of the contamination sources; the highest concentrations were found mainly in the processed and packed foodstuffs. About cooked and packed meals, the significant increase of concentrations of these contaminants in the meals after packaging testified to the influence of the contact of cooked foods with the kind of packaging. The first courses showed the highest increasing of the DBP and DEHP concentrations probably for the major contact surface between dish and course. The DBP and DEHP intake values estimated in the present study are noticeably variable and can reach levels near or up to TDI. For the migration tests, the packaging showed levels of contamination lower than EU limits, so they did not show any risks for human health, even if scarce data are available to evaluate the effects according to the daily intake and the specific toxic potential of each compound. Relating the comparison of the two method of extraction using synthetic wine tops, “A” way may be better than “B” for the detection of all compounds. QuEChERS method is quick, it needs small quantities of solvent, so it is cheap and safe for the worker, as suggested by literature data about the detection of other contaminants. During the experiment the percentage of recoveries were evaluated and even if they were not optimal, this method satisfies the expected advantages, but it needs other future optimization to improve these results. However it was possible to analyze different food matrices.
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