Mazzei, Pierluigi (2011) NMR evaluation of the interactions between humic substances and three molecules of agrochemical interest: beta-D-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes and glyphosate. [Tesi di dottorato] (Unpublished)


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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Resource language: English
Title: NMR evaluation of the interactions between humic substances and three molecules of agrochemical interest: beta-D-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes and glyphosate.
Date: 29 November 2011
Number of Pages: 152
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Scienze del suolo, della pianta, dell'ambiente e delle produzioni animali
Scuola di dottorato: Scienze agrarie e agroalimentari
Dottorato: Valorizzazione e gestione delle risorse agro-forestali
Ciclo di dottorato: 24
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
Date: 29 November 2011
Number of Pages: 152
Keywords: NMR, herbicide, soil enzymes
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/13 - Chimica agraria
Additional information: I fondi per coprire la borsa di studio destinata al sottoscritto, sono stati parzialmente forniti dall'Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche del CNR di Monterotondo (Roma).
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2011 15:11
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2014 06:03

Collection description

This doctoral thesis presents results concerning the investigation, by liquid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique, on interactions occurring among humic substances and three molecules largely diffused in soil: the herbicide glyphosate, the enzymes beta-D-Glucosidase and Alkaline Phosphatase. These agrochemical molecules were examined as a function of the increasing addition of humic substances. In detail, glyphosate was treated with both humic and fulvic acids (pH 5 and 7.2); the alkaline phosphatase with two different humic acids (pH 10.4) and beta-D-Glucosidase with fulvic acids (pH 5 and 7.2). All studied molecules interacted with employed humic substances and the complex formations were mainly driven by weak forces. These results were initially supported by the observation of resonance broadening and/ or chemical shift drift spectroscopic phenomena, as a function of the humic concentration. Then, by analyzing both the molecular spin relaxation and correlation times as well as the self-diffusion constants, significant and diagnostic variations emerged, thus, corroborating the hypothesis of the occurred interactions. Moreover, only in the case of glyphosate, it was possible to apply the saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiment and, by means of diffusion results, the fraction of herbicide bond to humic matter was calculated. Instead, concerning the soil enzymes, the attention was focused on a further purpose that consisted in researching possible modifications, due to humic interactions, affecting the enzymatic catalytic activity. Therefore, a progressive inhibition of the activity was detected in liquid-phase, as a function of both the molecular concentration and composition of humic substances. Finally, aiming to better reproduce a more realistic soil condition, the enzymatic inhibition, due to the interactions with natural organic matter, was further studied in liquid-solid phase. In fact, by preliminary experiments, beta-D-Glucosidase was immobilized on OH-Al-humate-montmorillonite complexes and a significant inhibition was again observed as well as its extents were more enhanced than the one detected for pure liquid catalysis.


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