Khormali, Shahab (2015) Optimal Integration of Battery Energy Storage Systems in Smart Grids. [Tesi di dottorato]


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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Title: Optimal Integration of Battery Energy Storage Systems in Smart Grids.
Date: 23 March 2015
Number of Pages: 124
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell'Informazione
Scuola di dottorato: Ingegneria industriale
Dottorato: Ingegneria elettrica
Ciclo di dottorato: 27
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
Carpinelli, GuidoUNSPECIFIED
Date: 23 March 2015
Number of Pages: 124
Uncontrolled Keywords: Battery energy storage systems; Smart grids; Microgrid.
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/33 - Sistemi elettrici per l'energia
Additional Information: Tel Number: 081 768 3203 Mob Number: 388 448 7731
Date Deposited: 13 Apr 2015 10:07
Last Modified: 24 Sep 2015 12:41
DOI: 10.6092/UNINA/FEDOA/10089


Power systems have been undergoing radical changes in recent years, and their planning and operation will be surely undertaken according to the Smart Grid (SG) vision in the near future. The SG initiatives aim at introducing new technologies and services in power systems, to make the electrical networks more reliable, efficient, secure and environmentally-friendly. In particular, it is expected that communication technologies, computational intelligence and distributed energy sources will be widely used for the whole power system in an integrated fashion. In particular, nowadays, unprecedented challenges like as stringent regulations, environmental concerns, growing demand for high quality, reliable electricity and rising customer expectations are forcing utilities to rethink about electricity generation and delivery from the bottom up. Moreover, the availability of low cost computing and telecommunications technologies, new generation options, and scalable, modular automation systems push utilities to be dynamic, innovative and ambitious enough to take advantage of them. Driven by the dynamics of the new energy environment, leading utilities, technology vendors and government organizations have created a vision of the next generation of energy delivery systems: the Smart Grid. Operational changes of the grid, caused by restructuring of the electric utility industry and electricity storage technology advancements, have created an opportunity for storage systems to provide unique services to the evolving grid. Especially Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs), thanks to the large number and variety of services they can provide, are powerful tools for the solution of some challenges that future grids will face. This consideration makes BESSs critical components of the future grids. The BESS can be applied for different services into the different levels of power system chain to satisfy technical challenges and provide financial benefits. In the context of the application of BESSs in SGs, there are two main problems that need to be addressed in a way that exploits the BESS potential, that are linked to their operation and sizing. This thesis focuses on both these aspects, proposing new strategies that allow optimizing the BESS adoption. When dealing with BESSs, sizing and operation are strictly linked. The correct sizing of a BESS, in fact, needs to take into account its operation which in turn will be effected with the aim of optimizing the whole system where it is included. In the first part of this research study, advanced optimal operating strategies were proposed for BESSs by considering both the distribution system operator perspective and the end user. Thus, the proposed operating strategies were performed with the aim of (i) leveling the active power requested by the loads connected to a distribution system (distribution system operator service), (ii) reducing the electricity costs sustained by an end-use costumer that provides demand response (DR) (end user service) and (iii) scheduling a microgrid (µG) with DR resources such as Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) and Data Centers (DCs) (both the two section service). The proposed strategies also satisfied technical constraints of BESSs and other components of the µG. The second part of the thesis presented the optimal sizing of BESSs aimed at maximizing the benefits related to their use. In the thesis, the sizing, which is performed by considering the end user point of view with reference to both the industrial and residential customers, is effected by adopting both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. With reference to the deterministic approach, a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications was proposed. In case of probabilistic approach, the case of a BESS installed in an industrial facility was considered and the sizing was performed based on the decision theory. Technical improvements and economic benefits of optimal operation and optimal sizing of BESSs in SG are demonstrated by the obtained results which are reported in the numerical applications. More specifically, it was clearly determined that BESSs can offer technical supports into the distribution operator section of the grid in terms of load management and security challenges. Moreover optimal integration of BESSs into the grid was also appealing for end users thanks to valuable amounts of electricity bill cost reduction. Regarding the original contribution of the thesis, the following considerations can be done. With reference to the load leveling service, an innovative two-step procedure (day-ahead scheduling and very short time predictive control) was proposed which optimally controls a BESS connected to a distribution substation in order to perform load leveling. In case of DR, a proper control of the BESS was proposed in order to perform DR under different price schemes, such as Real Time Pricing (RTP) and Time of Use (TOU) without modifying the daily work cycle of the industrial loads. The control procedure allows achieving contemporaneously two important goals that are the reduction of the bill costs and the prolonging the battery's lifetime so further reducing the costs sustained by the customer. With reference to the scheduling of microgrids, the original contribution of the thesis is focused on the proposal of optimization strategies aimed at managing and coordinating, simultaneously, batteries on board of vehicles or equipping data centers' Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) and Distributed Generation (DG) units. Also comparisons among different single-objective based strategies are made in order to highlight the most convenient. With reference to the sizing based on deterministic approach, unlike the other relating literature, the innovative contribution is that the closed form procedure takes into account both the technical constraints of the battery and contractual agreements between the customer and the utility. Moreover, in the economical analysis performed for the sizing, which is applied with reference to both residential and small industrial customers and is based on actual TOU tariffs, a wide sensitivity analysis to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs was performed. Some aspects that affect the profitability of the battery, such as technological limitations (e.g. the battery and converter efficiency), economic barriers (e.g. capital cost and the rate of change of the cost) and variation of the load profile along the years were deeply analyzed. In case of sizing based on probabilistic approach, the original contributions of the thesis are mainly referred to the proposal of a new method that uses a decision theory-based process to obtain the best sizing alternative considering the various uncertainties affecting the sizing procedure. The thesis is organized in three chapters which are dealing with integration of BESSs in SGs. The first chapter reports basic concepts and characteristics of BESSs, fundamental components and features of SGs and different services that BESSs can provide. The optimal operation strategies of BESS are considered in second chapter which includes their problem formulation, solving procedures and results. The third chapter deals with the optimal sizing problem of BESSs for which the problem formulation, solving procedures and results are reported. Finally, the conclusions are presented in the last part of thesis.

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