Parillo, Rita (2015) Chestnut green waste "in situ" composting for sustainable forest management: biomass composting monitoring, microbiota dynamics, and plant defence induction. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Title: Chestnut green waste "in situ" composting for sustainable forest management: biomass composting monitoring, microbiota dynamics, and plant defence induction
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Parillo, Ritaritaparillo@libero.it
Date: 31 March 2015
Number of Pages: 142
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Agraria
Scuola di dottorato: Scienze agrarie e agroalimentari
Dottorato: Scienze delle risorse ambientali
Ciclo di dottorato: 27
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
Rao, Maria Antoniettamaraoçunina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
Testa, AntoninoUNSPECIFIED
Pepe, OlimpiaUNSPECIFIED
Cornejo Rivas, PabloUNSPECIFIED
Date: 31 March 2015
Number of Pages: 142
Uncontrolled Keywords: in situ composting, microbiota,plant defence
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/12 - Patologia vegetale
Aree tematiche (7° programma Quadro): BIOTECNOLOGIE, PRODOTTI ALIMENTARI E AGRICOLTURA > Produzione sostenibile e gestione delle risorse biologiche della terra, della foresta e dell'ambiente acquatico
Date Deposited: 13 Apr 2015 13:29
Last Modified: 08 May 2016 01:00
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/10377
DOI: 10.6092/UNINA/FEDOA/10377

Abstract

Abstract The product of the chestnut wood cleaning was placed in aerated static piles, composed directly in the wood and consisting of fresh shoots, chipboard, mowing the undergrowth and leaves and curly dry. The composting process and mature compost was sampled and characterized for physic-chemical parameters and microbiological composition. The present doctorate thesis enlightens the composting process of biomass from chestnut woods handling. Physical, chemical parameters and their interaction with biological aspects were examined. Bacterial and fungal populations were detected and characterized during the composting process in order to identify species and their potential beneficial effects on plants. Agronomic studies were conducted to evaluate effects of the compost on plant fitness and suppressive activity. The results of the characterization of the process showed the potential in agriculture of the mature product. Main results of the study are: a) The temperature values in the internal part of the pile were strongly affected by the seasonal climatic conditions. Averagely, the decomposition process occurred at low temperature; b) The agronomic valuations allow the classification of the compost obtained as a good quality amendant; c) Parameters analyzed for stability evaluation, respiration test and phytotoxicity bioassay, as well as sanitary checks, indicated the product absolute suitability; d) Parameters of plant fitness and agronomic evaluation showed that plants grown in compost activate their response to stress; e) The suppression capability was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo; f) The trends of functional populations (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) during the bio-oxidative process were affected by the decrease of activity water and the temperature; g) DGGE patterns of eukaryotic populations showed a predominance of Ascomycota, including species of Penicillium, Moristroma, Paraconiothyrium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus. Selected 117 prokaryotic bands were affiliated with Bacilli, followed by Actinobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and -Proteobacteria; h) Extraction and SEM-TEM characterization of humic substances from wheat straw co-compost including lignocellulosic fungi and metallic oxides, reveales the importance of metallic oxides in controlling morphology stablility of HA-ion aggregates. This is the first time that the chestnut in situ composting process is characterised in all the phases. Moreover, this is the first time that the microbial dynamics during the process as well as the microbial characterization and its suppressive activity on soil-borne plant pathogens, was investigated. The results are encouraging and indicate that biomasses from forest and agricultural origin could represent a new and underspeculated source of agriculture amendant, pathogen and pests control, income for marginal areas, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity preservation. It is advisable that the research will keep on truck investigating the way to optimize the process to: amplify carbon sequestration, investigate the process in different matrices, and unravel the transcriptome of the plant stress response

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