Opromolla, Roberto (2016) Advanced LIDAR-based techniques for autonomous navigation of spaceborne and airborne platforms. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Title: Advanced LIDAR-based techniques for autonomous navigation of spaceborne and airborne platforms
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Opromolla, Robertoroberto.opromolla@unina.it
Date: 30 March 2016
Number of Pages: 223
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Ingegneria Industriale
Scuola di dottorato: Ingegneria industriale
Dottorato: Ingegneria aerospaziale, navale e della qualità
Ciclo di dottorato: 28
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
nomeemail
De Luca, Luigiluigi.deluca@unina.it
Tutor:
nomeemail
Grassi, MicheleUNSPECIFIED
Fasano, GiancarmineUNSPECIFIED
Rufino, GiancarloUNSPECIFIED
Date: 30 March 2016
Number of Pages: 223
Uncontrolled Keywords: LIDAR; spacecraft relative navigation; uncooperative pose determination; sensor modeling; sensor simulation; spacecraft relative dynamics design; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; localization; mapping
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/05 - Impianti e sistemi aerospaziali
Date Deposited: 11 Apr 2016 09:33
Last Modified: 25 May 2019 01:00
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/10732

Abstract

The main goal of this PhD thesis is the development and performance assessment of innovative techniques for the autonomous navigation of aerospace platforms by exploiting data acquired by electro-optical sensors. Specifically, the attention is focused on active LIDAR systems since they globally provide a higher degree of autonomy with respect to passive sensors. Two different areas of research are addressed, namely the autonomous relative navigation of multi-satellite systems and the autonomous navigation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The global aim is to provide solutions able to improve estimation accuracy, computational load, and overall robustness and reliability with respect to the techniques available in the literature. In the space field, missions like on-orbit servicing and active debris removal require a chaser satellite to perform autonomous orbital maneuvers in close-proximity of an uncooperative space target. In this context, a complete pose determination architecture is here proposed, which relies exclusively on three-dimensional measurements (point clouds) provided by a LIDAR system as well as on the knowledge of the target geometry. Customized solutions are envisaged at each step of the pose determination process (acquisition, tracking, refinement) to ensure adequate accuracy level while simultaneously limiting the computational load with respect to other approaches available in the literature. Specific strategies are also foreseen to ensure process robustness by autonomously detecting algorithms' failures. Performance analysis is realized by means of a simulation environment which is conceived to realistically reproduce LIDAR operation, target geometry, and multi-satellite relative dynamics in close-proximity. An innovative method to design trajectories for target monitoring, which are reliable for on-orbit servicing and active debris removal applications since they satisfy both safety and observation requirements, is also presented. On the other hand, the problem of localization and mapping of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is also tackled since it is of utmost importance to provide autonomous safe navigation capabilities in mission scenarios which foresee flights in complex environments, such as GPS denied or challenging. Specifically, original solutions are proposed for the localization and mapping steps based on the integration of LIDAR and inertial data. Also in this case, particular attention is focused on computational load and robustness issues. Algorithms' performance is evaluated through off-line simulations carried out on the basis of experimental data gathered by means of a purposely conceived setup within an indoor test scenario.

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