Marulo, Serena (2021) Development of enzymatic processes for the recovery of by-products from oilseeds. [Tesi di dottorato]


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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Resource language: English
Title: Development of enzymatic processes for the recovery of by-products from oilseeds
Date: 23 July 2021
Number of Pages: 98
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Agraria
Dottorato: Food science
Ciclo di dottorato: 33
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
Sorrentino, AngelaUNSPECIFIED
Date: 23 July 2021
Number of Pages: 98
Keywords: walnut kernels, pumpkin seeds, enzyme-assisted aqueous oil extraction, green process, enzyme immobilization, magnetic nanoparticles
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/15 - Scienze e tecnologie alimentari
Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/10 - Biochimica
Date Deposited: 20 Jul 2021 13:54
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2023 11:21

Collection description

In a circular economy, it is very important to try to recycle all the by-products of the enterprise. Even more interesting is the possibility of giving economic and nutritional value to the latter. For companies that process nuts and oilseeds, an important waste consists of pieces of different sizes that cannot be reused except as animal feed. One of the ways to recover this by-product is to extract the oil, since this type of seed contains a large amount of fatty acids as a source of energy for their germination. Nowadays, the technology used to produce oil from oilseeds is based on the extraction in organic solvents or on the use of high pressures. Both technologies may have drawbacks. Safety and environmental issues have prompted the development of aqueous extraction for oil recovery from oilseeds. Enzymes are considered a useful biotechnological tool for the extraction of high-quality oil. Enzymatic treatments that improve oil extractability from oilseeds represent a follow up method to produce oil for companies. In addition, another degree of innovation derives from the development of enzymes immobilized on nanoparticles capable of being mixed with the solid to be liquified and improving its performance. It is known that immobilization not only allows for economic savings thanks to the enzyme reusing, but it has also the technological advantage of increasing the efficiency of enzymes. It is well known that oilseeds are a good source of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and α-tocoferol. These have significant and valuable benefits on human health that classify them as a nutraceutical oil. Given these assumptions, the proposed research would allow the introduction of an innovative technology based mainly on the biotechnological use of enzymes with low environmental impact and economically profitable. Furthermore, these studies have added value to the company waste, both economically and nutritionally. So, the main objective of this study was the development of an immobilized-enzyme system able to improve both extractability and yield of oil from oilseed. Papain-coated magnetic nanoparticles were developed and used as a biotechnological tool with low environmental impact and economically profitable, to extract oil from oilseed. This study focuses on the development of enzymes processes that are able to increase the oil extractability. In order to obtain more information about oil extractability, we used the different enzymes, such as protease, cellulose and pectinase, which degrade the principal components of the oilseed structures. Moreover, different time, concentration of enzymes and buffer ratio was studied. The oilseeds were ground, incubated with the enzymes properly, and then centrifuged. (At the end of each experiment, was taken a photo to analyse the amount of extracted oil). The oilseeds have been grounded, properly incubated with the enzymes, and then centrifuged. Papain, a serine-proteases, bonded to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4), was used for the oil extraction. Different raw materials, such as pumpkin seeds and walnut, work in different way, ending up with different results. Furthermore, the immobilization can drastically reduce the economic impact positively affecting the relative industries. Certainly, with the enzymatic treatment it is possible to extract oil from oilseeds and to improve the extraction of oil in term of yield and avoiding the use of solvent. This study demonstrated that the enzymatic treatment allows to extract oil from oilseeds, avoiding the use of solvents and improving the process in terms of yield. Moreover, showed that aqueous enzyme assisted oil extraction gave higher yield than the simple aqueous oil extraction. Also, the oil quality does not decrease compared to the control extracted in hexane but is much better than the oil from local market. Furthermore, papain-coated magnetic nanoparticles work in the same ways of the free papain used for the oil extraction. So, with a view to a circular economy, the possibility to recovery the papain-coated magnetic nanoparticles through a magnet, allow to reuse the enzyme reducing the process cost.


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