Security governance between State and market: human security and security sector reform
Arienzo, Alessandro (2008) Security governance between State and market: human security and security sector reform. (Sottomesso)
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The first part of this contribution is dedicated to reconstructing the salient traits of theories of governance that operate on the foundation of reflections on global security. The changes and transformation that have occurred in this category will be analysed in the second part, giving specific attention to the implications that they demonstrate in the international management of movements of populations. My goal is to investigate the relation that is established between governance and State, beginning from the transformations in the codification of the notion of security and from the reflections produced in the field of security governance on the displacement of populations following serious crises or emergencies. In the context of this specific governance, I will attempt to paint a picture of differentiated policies, set to work by – and by means of – multiple actors, including the State whose goal is to bring economic development, security and democratic government into synergy. This nexus is at the centre of reflections on global security governance and constitutes the nucleus of a strategy that aims to support failing (or transitional) States that risk being transformed into ‘rogue States’, thus activating dynamics of war. In the same way, this nexus is at the heart of an ensemble of focused policies that are today posited on the basis of attempts to respond to the immense movements of populations produced by poverty, conflicts, sickness and environmental disasters. In such policies, the State is attributed different roles and functions and, in some cases, competing roles: sometimes it operates as guarantee and principle author of policies of security/safety; at other times it is nothing other than one actor among many that compete in the realisation of definite policies at the international level; more often, it is instead the ‘object’ of more complex strategies of security governance. We thus come to see global security governance as the exercise of a non-statal government over populations. It necessitates the strengthening both of statal institutions and also of autonomous dynamics of the competitive market. Governance thus seems to be able to be functional only in the shadow of the State and market. The first offers it a normative and territorial context of reference, as well as the guarantee of a substantial security community; the second furnishes it with the general form of exchanges.
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