A Fast Digital Integrator for magnetic measurements
Spiezia, Giovanni (2008) A Fast Digital Integrator for magnetic measurements. [Tesi di dottorato] (Inedito)
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In this work, the Fast Digital Integrator (FDI), conceived for characterizing dynamic features of superconducting magnets and measuring fast transients of magnetic fields at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and other high-energy physics research centres, is presented. FDI development was carried out inside a framework of cooperation between the group of Magnet Tests and Measurements of CERN and the Department of Engineering of the University of Sannio. Drawbacks related to measurement time decrease of main high-performance analog-to-digital architectures, such as Sigma-Delta and integrators, are overcome by founding the design on (i) a new generation of successive-approximation converters, for high resolution (18-bit) at high rate (500 kS/s), (ii) a digital signal processor, for on-line down-sampling by integrating the input signal, (iii) a custom time base, based on a Universal Time Counter, for reducing time-domain uncertainty, and (iv) a PXI board, for high bus transfer rate, as well as noise and heat immunity. A metrological analysis, aimed at verifying the effect of main uncertainty sources, systematic errors, and design parameters on the instrument performance is presented. In particular, results of an analytical study, a preliminary numerical analysis, and a comprehensive multi-factor analysis carried out to confirm the instrument design, are reported. Then, the selection of physical components and the FDI implementation on a PXI board according to the above described conceptual architecture are highlighted. The on-line integration algorithm, developed on the DSP in order to achieve a real-time Nyquist bandwidth of 125 kHz on the flux, is described. C++ classes for remote control of FDI, developed as a part of a new software framework, the Flexible Framework for Magnetic Measurements, conceived for managing a wide spectrum of magnetic measurements techniques, are described. Experimental results of metrological and throughput characterization of FDI are reported. In particular, in metrological characterization, FDI working as a digitizer and as an integrator, was assessed by means of static, dynamic, and time base tests. Typical values of static integral nonlinearity of ±7 ppm, ±3 ppm of 24-h stability, and 108 dB of signal-to-noise-anddistortion ratio at 10 Hz on Nyquist bandwidth of 125 kHz, were surveyed during the integrator working. The actual throughput rate was measured by a specific procedure of PXI bus analysis, by highlighting typical values of 1 MB/s. Finally, the experimental campaign, carried out at CERN facilities of superconducting magnet testing for on-field qualification of FDI, is illustrated. In particular, the FDI was included in a measurement station using also the new generation of fast transducers. The performance of such a station was compared with the one of the previous standard station used in series tests for qualifying LHC magnets. All the results highlight the FDI full capability of acting as the new de-facto standard for high-performance magnetic measurements at CERN and in other high-energy physics research centres.
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