Logics in Computer Science
Mogavero, Fabio (2010) Logics in Computer Science. [Tesi di dottorato] (Inedito)
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In this thesis, we introduce and examine four new temporal logic formalisms that can be used as specification languages for the automated verification of the reliability of hardware and software designs with respect to a desired behavior. The work is organized in two parts. In the first one, we reason about two logics for computations, GCTL* and MCTL*, which are useful to describe a correct execution of monolithic closed systems. In the second one, instead, we focus on two logics for strategies, SL and mATL*, which are useful to formalize several interesting properties about interactive plays in multi-entities systems modeled as multi-agent games. In the “Logics for Computations” part, we first study the immersion of the idea of graded quantifications into the temporal-logic framework. In first order logic, existential and universal quantifiers express the concepts of the existence of at least one individual object satisfying a formula, or that all individual objects satisfy a formula. In other logics, these quantifiers have been generalized to express that, for a given non-negative integer n, at least n or all but n individuals satisfy a particular formula. Here, we consider GCTL, a temporal logic with graded path quantifiers, which allows to describe properties like “there exist at least n different classes of computational ﬂuxes in which a system reaches a predetermined state”, where the classes over paths are computed by means of a predetermined equivalence relation. More precisely, we uniformly extend the classic concept of graded quantifiers from states to paths, through the use of a concept of path equivalence with respect to a given path formula. About this logic, in particular, we study the expressiveness and succinctness relationships with respect to GµCalculus and the complexity of the satisfiability problem, which results to be ExpTime-Complete. This research is partially based on the works [BMM09] “Graded Computation Tree Logic” and [BMM10] “Graded Computation Tree Logic with Binary Coding” published, respectively, in the proceedings of the “IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, 2009” and “EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic, 2010”. Preliminary results can be also found in [Mog07]. Furthermore, we consider special quantifiers over substructures, which allow to select, using parametric criteria, small critical parts of a system to be successively verified. In literature, there are some attempts to define a logic that allows to modify the underlying structure under exam and then to verify on it some assigned property. However, as far as we know, none of them is able to select minimal submodels of a given property describing the criteria on which then execute the verification process. Here, we base our work on the search of a new operator that merges the concept of quantifiers on structures with that one derived by a generalization of the concept of pruning. The results of this work, is a class of three different extensions of CTL* with minimal model quantifiers, which we name MCTL*. Regarding these logics, we study several reductions among them, as well as the satisfiability problem that we prove to be highly undecidability, i.e., Σ_1^1-Hard, for two out of the three cases. This research is partially based on the work [MM09] “Branching-Time Temporal Logics with Minimal Model Quantifiers” published in the proceedings of the “International Conference on Developments in Language Theory, 2009”. In the “Logics for Strategies” part, we first study the problem of defining a new specification language through which it is possible to express several important properties of multi-entities systems that are neither expressible using classical monolithic temporal logics, such as CTL*, nor using two-agent-teams temporal logics, such as ATL*. In literature, we can found some proposal of logics that try to achieve this goal, but unfortunately, none of them succeeds completely on all the aspects. Among them, one of the most important attempts is CHP-SL, a logics in which one can use variables over strategies. However, this logic has a deep weakness, since it does not allow to describe games with more than two players and even two-players concurrent games. Here, we introduce SL, a logic with a syntax similar in some aspects to the first order logic, in which the strategies of the agent building the game are treated as first order objects on which we can quantify. This logic generalizes CHP-SL, by allowing the specification of the correct behavior of multi-agent concurrent games. In SL, for example, we are able to express very complex but useful Nash equilibria that are not expressible with CHP-SL. We enlighten that Nash equilibrium is one of the most important concepts in game theory. For the introduced logic, we solve two problems left open in the work on CHP-SL. Precisely, we show that the related model-checking problem is 2ExpTime-Complete, thus not harder of the same problem for several subsumed logics, while we prove that its satisfiability problem is highly undecidable, i.e., Σ_1^1-Hard. This research is partially based on the work [MMV10a] “Reasoning About Strategies” published in the proceedings of the “IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, 2010”. Finally, we consider the concept of relentful strategic reasoning, i.e., a formalism that expresses the ability of a strategy to be used not only to achieve a first given goal, but also to change its final goal in dependence of the history of the play. In the context of planning, memoryful quantification, i.e., quantification over computations that does not lose information about the past along the time, is one of the principal way to express the fact that a system is able to achieve a desired result, and shift to a different goal if some event happens. However, this kind of quantification was not considered before in the context of multi-agent planning. Here, we introduce mATL*, a fusion of the classic alternating temporal logic ATL* with memoryful quantification, with the aim of covering the previous idea. About this logics, we prove that, although it is equivalent to ATL*, it is exponentially more succinct. Nevertheless, we prove that both the model-checking and the satisfiability problems remain 2ExpTime-Complete, as for ATL*. This research is partially based on the work [MMV10b] “Relentful Strategic Reasoning in Alternating-Time Temporal Logic” published in the proceedings of the “International Conference on Logic for Programming Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning, 2010”.
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