Miele, Nicoletta Antonella (2013) Calorie reduction in food: Sensory Performance of a New Sweetener and Fat Replacer Optimization. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Item Type: Tesi di dottorato
Lingua: English
Title: Calorie reduction in food: Sensory Performance of a New Sweetener and Fat Replacer Optimization
Miele, Nicoletta Antonellanicolettaantonella.miele@unina.it
Date: 2 April 2013
Number of Pages: 68
Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Department: Agraria
Scuola di dottorato: Scienze agrarie e agro-alimentari
Dottorato: Scienze e tecnologie delle produzioni agro-alimentari
Ciclo di dottorato: 24
Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato:
Barbieri, Giancarlobarbieri@unina.it
Cavella, Silvanacavella@unina.it
Di Monaco, Rosselladimonaco@unina.it
Date: 2 April 2013
Number of Pages: 68
Uncontrolled Keywords: calorie reduction, sugar replacer, MNEI,sensory analysis, filling cream, fat replacer, formula optimization, mechanical properties
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR: Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/15 - Scienze e tecnologie alimentari
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2013 08:30
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2014 06:04
URI: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/id/eprint/9433


Generally, to reduce calorie content of a food, fat and sugar are reduced or removed and, subsequently, replaced with other components. Calorie can also ideally reduced in a food, through the incorporation of a certain amount of air, to obtain a product with the same volume but with a different weight and consequently a reduced calorie content. Considering that lipids and sugar play many roles in food, the reduction or substitution of these ingredients may affect both sensory and physical properties of modified foods. The aim of the thesis was the calorie reduction in food. The research have been focused on: the characterization of a new sweet protein, as alternative to sugar, particularly, for beverage industry application; the optimization of a fat replacer system for fat based fillings. The first study case focused on the sensory characterization of MNEI, obtained by recombinant expression in cells of E. coli with high yields. Since MNEI is an High Intensity Sweeteners (HIS) it could be used in the beverage industry meeting the consumer needs about the low calorie content and the sweetness of beverage. Thus, the specific objectives of this study were, first, the determination of taste detection (DT) and recognition threshold (RT) of MNEI in different conditions typical of beverage processing and of beverage consumption, concerning mineral content, serving temperature of the product, pH and thermal treatment, and then to compare dynamic sensory performance of MNEI, with that of aspartame, saccharin and sucrose. A selected panel evaluated DT and RT of MNEI by using a modified version of difference from Reference method. Through the modified method, assessors were also asked to give a qualitative information about the perceived taste, thus it was also possible to obtain the RT of MNEI. Then, equi-sweet concentrations of different sweeteners were found through difference from Reference method, by using a selected panel. Next sweeteners, at those concentrations, were analysed thought time-Intensity (t-I) and Temporal Dominance of Sensation (TDS), to determinate sweetness evolution over time and the interaction between sweetness and other stimuli, respectively, by using a trained panel. The results demonstrated that MNEI DT and RT were much lower than those of sucrose. Besides, both mineral content and serving temperature affected MNEI DT, whereas pH and thermal treatment did not affect perceived sweetness. The modified version of difference from Reference method was useful for RT determination. Equi-sweetness values of MNEI and of three market sweeteners were determined. Time-Intensity results showed that MNEI differed from sucrose, meanwhile TDS results showed that, in presence of other stimuli, these differences were reduced. The dominant attributes of model beverages were the same for all sweeteners. In the other study case the effect of different sugar and milk proteins on some properties of a fat-based filling cream were investigated by using a three-component (icing sugar, dextrose monohydrate, skimmed milk powder) D-optimal mixture design. The best formulation was used as reference and powders percentage were considered the constant ingredients. In order to reduce calorie content, a D-optimal mixture design with five component (water, margarine, simplesse, microcrystalline cellulose and maltodextrin) was used, 25 formulations resulted. As response variables, aw, density, colour parameters and mechanical parameters were evaluated. The best formulation was chosen through the desirability function to determine areas of overlap where all responses were simultaneously optimized. To validate the model, formulations in the optimized region were prepared and submitted to a paired t –test (p ≤ 0.05). Quadratic models were used to explain almost all parameters considered, except for aw, highlighting that the components interacted with each other and determined effect on some physical parameters. The optimized formulation had 3.5 kcal/g ,so, considering that the full fat formulation had 5.1kcal/g, it was possible to develop filling cream reducing the caloric content at least of 30%.


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